(also known as Men-nefer) was the ancient capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom and the first capital of a unified Egypt. It was founded by King Narmer (also known as Menes) around 3100 BC. The city was strategically located near the Nile River and served as a political and cultural center for over 3,000 years.
During its peak, Memphis was a thriving metropolis, home to numerous temples, palaces, and administrative buildings. It was also an important trade hub, connecting Upper Egypt with Lower Egypt and facilitating commerce along the Nile.
One of the most notable sites in Memphis is the Temple of Ptah, dedicated to the creator god Ptah. This temple was the religious center of the city and played a significant role in the cult of the god during ancient times.
Memphis also housed the magnificent Great Sphinx, which is located near the modern village of Giza. The Sphinx is a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human or animal. It is believed that the Sphinx was built during the reign of King Khafre, a pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, and it is linked to the nearby Pyramids of Giza.
Over time, the once-mighty city of Memphis declined in importance as other cities emerged as powerful centers in Egypt. Today, the ruins of Memphis can be visited near the modern-day town of Mit Rahina, just south of Cairo. The site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and attracts tourists interested in exploring the ancient history of Egypt.